Gad Nassi

Sabbatean investigation

Osmanlı Sarayında Bir Avrupa Asılzâdesi: Yusuf Nasi

Enkizisyon zoru ile Hiris­tiyanligi kabul etmis bir Yahudi aileden, Porte­kiz'de dogmus olan Joâo, Osmanli topraklarina yerlestik­ten sonra Yahudiligini ilân et­mis, Yusuf Nasi ismini kullan­mistir. Birçok siyasal olaya ka­risan ve II. Selim'in saltanati si­rasinda gücünün zirvesine ula­san Yusuf Nasi karsisinda, dev­rinin en büyük devlet adamla­rindan Sokullu'yu bulmustur.

1492 yilinda, Ispanya'daki son Arap dayanagi Endülüs'ün Ispanyollar tarafindan fethi, Hi­ristiyan olmakla ülkeyi terket- mek arasinda bir seçim yapmak zorunlugunda birakilan Müslü­man ve Yahudilerin Ispan­ya'dan ayrilmalarina yol açti. Bilâhare, Portekiz de, Enkizis­yon yasalarini benimseyecekti.


El Batalyon Djudio En La Revolusion De Los Turkos Djovenos

"o la libertad se va azer o nuestra sangre va korrer por amor de la Turkia"

La revolusion de los Turkos Djovenos ke tuvo lugar al empesijo del siglo pasado, fue un evenimiento desizivo para el avenir politiko de la Turkia. Esta revolusion metio fin al reyno despotiko del Sultan AbdulHamit II i deklansho un proseso de demokratizasion i de progresivizmo.

En este konteksto, un fakto signifikante para la istoria djudia, fue la egzistensia de un batalyon formado por soldados djudios, ke partisipo aktivamente a esta revolusion en gerreando kontra las fuersas partizanes de AbdulHamit. Este fakto ke no topo la ekspresion meresida en muestra istoria fue notado en un artikolo eskrito por el segundo prezidente de Israel, el Sr. Yitshak Ben Zvi(1).

Pic 01Parada militara en Saloniko. Empesijo del siglo XXEn Djulio 1908, basho la presion de los Turkos Djovenos apoyados por la armada, se avia eskojido un parlamento i fue formado un governo konstitusional. Ma este dezvelopamiento no trusho los  rezultados dezeados en la shena politika i sosiala. La atmosfera de libertad favorizo la ekspresion de un fanatizmo relijiozo islamiko, kontrario a la ideolojia progresista de la Revolusion. En April 1909 esbrocho una sangriente rebelion kontra la mueva Konstitusion. Segun el Sr. Ben Zvi, durante esta rebelion el deputado Şekip Arslan fue asasinado por yerro, en lugar del jurnalisto Huseyin Cahid Yalçin ke unos kuantos dias antes avia publikado un artikolo en favor del Sionizmo.


Shabbetaism And The Ottoman Mystical Tradition

In the 17th century all Jewish communities believed in the coming of the Messiah, and this provided the cornerstone for the entire Shabbatean movement. Its birth, development, and collapse within the bounds of. the Ottoman Empire, however, should not be seen as purely coincidental. There can be no doubt that the movement was influenced by local conditions, which Were responsible for the shape it took on. As the movement developed, its connection with the Ottoman environment and the influences upon it became more and more obvious.

Pic 01"Shabbetai Zevi. the False Messiah." is the inscription on an 18th century copper engraving from Germany in which the "Messiah" is seen wearing a Muslim turban. His apostasy astounded his followers, and disillusioned most of them. A minority, nevertheless, sought a theological justification for his conversion.The following paper will attempt to analyze the basic principles of Shabbatean mystical thought as compared with Ottoman thought and mystical weltanschaung.

Ottoman mysticism developed within the Shi'ite population of Anatolia, where it was most popular. Turkomanic groups, which still believed in pre-Islamic traditions, remained under the influence of the Shi'ite movement due to their geographic proximity and cultural associations with Iran. The Shi'ites in Anatolia are composed of groups called the Kizilbash and the Alevi. Institutionalization of Ottoman mysticism led to the rise of the Bektashi movement in the 13th century. Various streams of mystical belief grew up in Anagolia, each with its own distinguishing activities, all of them similar and providing continuity of thought. Beliefs popular among the Shi'ite population constituted the source of the mystical movement in Anatolia, where it found backing and encouragement.


In the Footsteps of Sabbatean Redemption: The Polish Experience / From Mickiewicz to Young Turks

HALAPID, XVI, 4, CA, Fall 2009, pp. 28-38.

Relations between the Ottoman Empire and Poland are extensively recorded in history. However, their Jewish-mystical counterparts, which appear to have carried out a meaningful function, remains as a less explored and even feebly recorded feature.


“Shabbetaism and the Ottoman Mystical Tradition” in 500 Years in our Heritage

1492-1992, First International Congress on Turkish Jewry organized by MORIT, Beth Hatefusoth. Tel-Aviv, October 1989.
Turkish version of the same paper, "Sabetaycilik ve Osmanli Mistik Gelenegi", Tarih ve Toplum , XVI, 75, Istanbul, March 1990, pp. 143-145.


Secret Muslim Jews Await their Messiah: Shabbetai Tzvi Lives

Moment , XVII, 4, Washington DC, 1992, pp. 42-51.

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At daybreak an octogenarian cautiously approaches the shore of the Bosphorus. He stays only a short time, bending toward the sea, murmuring, then rubbing his face glancing at the sky for the first light of day. He leaves furtively; no one really knows why he has come. The language he uses is incomprehensible to almost all the nine million people who live in Istanbul; not even his grand-children understand it. His deepest secret is the meaning of his utterance : Sabbetay Sevi, asperamos a ti (Shabbetai Tzvi, we wait for you).


The Young Turks Revolution, Sabbateans and the Zionist Connection

Lecture presented at the "Congress on the Idea of Nationhood in the Sephardi Diaspora", Yad Tabenkin, Israel, December 21-23, 1992. Also published in Los Muestros, 12, Brussels, 1993, pp. 20-21.

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Tres Objetos Sabetaistos

Aki Yerushalayim , XXI, 63, Jerusalem, May 2000, pp. 7-13. Also, Three Sabbatean Objects, in Turkish-Jewish Encounters, Ed. Mehmet Tütüncü, Haarlem, 2001, pp. 261-270.


Exploring the Pagan, Jewish and Ottoman Roots of the “Sabbatean Lamb Festival”

Turkish-Jewish Encounters, Ed. Mehmet Tütüncü, Haarlem, 2001, pp. 241-260.

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Meliselda, The Sabbatean Metamorphosis of a Medieval Romance

Los Muestros , 48, Brussels, September 2002, pp. 38-41.
Lecture presented at the "First Historic-Cultural Hispano-Turco-Sephardic Encounter", Ankara, 28-29-30 November, 2005.

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